Being Heard?

Identifying Student Subject Positions in Research about School and Classroom Community


  • Eleni Patoulioti Uppsala University
  • Claes Nilholm Uppsala University



community, metaphors, SMART, discourse analysis, subject positions, students, review



Author Biography

Claes Nilholm, Uppsala University

Claes Nilholm is a professor of education at Uppsala University who has a broad research interest with a focus on inclusive education. His main contributions concern theoretical and conceptual issues and overviews and reviews of research.


Arribas-Ayllon, M., & Walkerdine, V. (2008). Foucauldian discourse analysis. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research in Psychology, 91–108. DOI:

Baker, J. A., Bridger, R., Terry, T., & Winsor, A. (1997). Schools as caring communities: A relational approach to school reform. School Psychology Review, 26(4), 586–602. DOI:

Battistich, V., Solomon, D., Kim, D., Watson, M., & Schaps, E. (1995). Schools as communities, poverty levels of student populations, and students’ attitudes, motives, and performance: A multilevel analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 627–658. DOI:

Battistich, V., Solomon, D., Watson, M., & Schaps, E. (1997). Caring school communities. Educational Psychologist, 32(3), 137–151. DOI:

Berry, R. A. (2006). Inclusion, Power, and Community:Teachers and Students Interpret the Language of Community in an Inclusion Classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), 489–529. DOI:

Biesta, G. (1998). Pedagogy without humanism: Foucault and the subject of education. Interchange, 29(1), 1–16. DOI:

Biesta, G. (2020). Risking Ourselves in Education: Qualification, Socialization, and Subjectification Revisited. Educational Theory, 70(1), 89–104. DOI:

Bingham, C., & Biesta, G. (2010). Jacques Rancière: Education, truth, emancipation. Bloomsbury Publishing. DOI:

Bradbury, A. (2019). Making little neo-liberals: The production of ideal child/learner subjectivities in primary school through choice, self-improvement and ‘growth mindsets.’ Power and Education, 11(3), 309–326. DOI:

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2022). Thematic analysis: A practical guide. SAGE. DOI:

Brown, W. (2003). Neo-liberalism and the End of Liberal Democracy. Theory & Event, 7(1). DOI:

Brunila, K. (2012a). A Diminished Self: Entrepreneurial and Therapeutic Ethos Operating with a Common Aim. European Educational Research Journal, 11(4), 477–486. DOI:

Brunila, K. (2012b). From risk to resilience. Education Inquiry, 3(3), 451–464. DOI:

Brunila, K., & Siivonen, P. (2016). Preoccupied with the self: Towards self-responsible, enterprising, flexible and self-centred subjectivity in education. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 37(1), 56–69. DOI:

Ciani, K. D., Middleton, M. J., Summers, J. J., & Sheldon, K. M. (2010). Buffering against performance classroom goal structures: The importance of autonomy support and classroom community. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35(1), 88–99. DOI:

Cremin, T., Mottram, M., Collins, F., Powell, S., & Safford, K. (2009). Teachers as readers: Building communities of readers. Literacy, 43(1), 11–19. DOI:

Davies, B., & Bansel, P. (2007). Neoliberalism and education. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 20(3), 247–259. DOI:

Dewey, J. (1931, 2011). Creative Democracy—The Task before Us. In R. B. Talisse & S. F. Aikin (Eds.), The Pragmatism Reader: From Peirce through the Present (pp. 150–154). Princeton University Press. DOI:

Dewey, J. (1900, 2017). The School and Society: Being three lectures. Https://Www.Gutenberg.Org/Files/53910/53910-h/53910-h.Htm.

Evnitskaya, N., & Morton, T. (2011). Knowledge construction, meaning-making and interaction in CLIL science classroom communities of practice. Language and Education, 25(2), 109–127. DOI:

Fasheh, M. (1990). Community education: To reclaim and transform what has been made invisible. Harvard Educational Review, 60(1), 19–36. DOI:

Felner, R. D., Favazza, A., Shim, M., Brand, S., Gu, K., & Noonan, N. (2001). Whole school improvement and restructuring as prevention and promotion: Lessons from STEP and the Project on High Performance Learning Communities. Journal of School Psychology, 39(2), 177–202. DOI:

Felner, R. D., Seitsinger, A. M., Brand, S., Burns, A., & Bolton, N. (2007). Creating small learning communities: Lessons from the project on high-performing learning communities about “what works” in creating productive, developmentally enhancing, learning contexts. Educational Psychologist, 42(4), 209–221. DOI:

Fendler, L. (2001). Educating flexible souls. Governing the Child in the New Millennium, 119–142.

Fendler, L. (2006). Others and the problem of community. Curriculum Inquiry, 36(3), 303–326. DOI:

Fielding, M. (2012). Education as if people matter: John Macmurray, community and the struggle for democracy. Oxford Review of Education, 38(6), 675–692. DOI:

Fielding, M. (2013). Whole school meetings and the development of radical democratic community. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 32(2), 123–140. DOI:

Fine, M., Weis, L., & Powell, L. (1997). Communities of Difference: A Critical Look at Desegregated Spaces Created for and by Youth. Harvard Educational Review, 67(2), 247–285. DOI:

Foucault, M. (1982). The subject and power. Critical Inquiry, 8(4), 777–795. DOI:

Foucault, M. (2001). Fearless speech (J. Pearson, Ed.). Semiotext.

Foucault, M. (2008). The birth of biopolitics [Electronic resource] lectures at the Collége de France, 1978-1979 (M. Senellart, Ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. DOI:

Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed [Electronic resource]. Continuum.

Furman, G. C. (1998). Postmodernism and community in schools: Unraveling the paradox. Educational Administration Quarterly, 34(3), 298–328. DOI:

García-Carrión, R., & Díez-Palomar, J. (2015). Learning communities: Pathways for educational success and social transformation through interactive groups in mathematics. European Educational Research Journal, 14(2), 151–166. DOI:

Goos, M. (2004). Learning mathematics in a classroom community of inquiry. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 35(4), 258–291. DOI:

Grisham, D. L., & Wolsey, T. D. (2006). Recentering the middle school classroom as a vibrant learning community: Students, literacy, and technology intersect. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 49(8), 648–660. DOI:

Hall, S. (2001). Foucault: Power, knowledge and discourse. In M. Wetherell, S. Taylor, & S. J. Yates (Eds.), Discourse theory and practice: A reader (pp. 72–81).

Hamre, B., Fristrup, T., & Christensen, G. (2016). The subject of exemption: Through discourses of normalization and individualization in Denmark. Nordic Journal of Social Research, 7(2), 6–21. DOI:

Harvey, D. (2007). A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford University Press, Incorporated.

Herrenkohl, L. R., Palincsar, A. S., DeWater, L. S., & Kawasaki, K. (1999). Developing scientific communities in classrooms: A sociocognitive approach. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 8(3–4), 451–493. DOI:

Heyes, C. J. (2010). Subjectivity and power. In D. Taylor (Ed.), Michel Foucault: Key Concepts (pp. 159–172). Acumen Publishing; Cambridge Core. DOI:

Hilt, L. T., Riese, H., & Søreide, G. E. (2019). Narrow identity resources for future students: The 21st century skills movement encounters the Norwegian education policy context. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 51(3), 384–402. DOI:

Hufferd-Ackles, K., Fuson, K. C., & Sherin, M. G. (2004). Describing levels and components of a math-talk learning community. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 35(2), 81–116. DOI:

Kendall, G., & Wickham, G. (1999). Using Foucault’s methods. SAGE. DOI:

Kliewer, C., May Fitzgerald, L., Meyer-Mork, J., Hartman, P., English-Sand, P., & Raschke, D. (2004). Citizenship for all in the literate community: An ethnography of young children with significant disabilities in inclusive early childhood settings. Harvard Educational Review, 74(4), 373–403. DOI:

Kovalainen, M., & Kumpulainen, K. (2005). The discursive practice of participation in an elementary classroom community. Instructional Science, 33(3), 213–250. DOI:

Kumpulainen, K., Mikkola, A., & Jaatinen, A.-M. (2014). The chronotopes of technology-mediated creative learning practices in an elementary school community. Learning, Media and Technology, 39(1), 53–74. DOI:

McGinty, A. S., Justice, L., & Rimm-Kaufman, S. E. (2008). Sense of school community for preschool teachers serving at-risk children. Early Education and Development, 19(2), 361–384. DOI:

Nilholm, C. (2017). Smart: Ett sätt att genomföra forskningsöversikter. Studentlitteratur.

Noddings, N. (1996). On community. Educational Theory, 46(3), 245–267. DOI:

Oser, F. K., Althof, W., & Higgins‐D’Alessandro, A. (2008). The Just Community approach to moral education: System change or individual change? Journal of Moral Education, 37(3), 395–415. DOI:

Osterman, K. F. (2000). Students’ need for belonging in the school community. Review of Educational Research, 70(3), 323–367. DOI:

Parker, I. (1994). Reflexive research and the grounding of analysis: Social psychology and the psy-complex. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 4(4), 239–252. DOI:

Parker, L., & Raihani, R. (2011). Democratizing Indonesia through education? Community participation in Islamic schooling. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 39(6), 712–732. DOI:

Patoulioti, E., & Nilholm, C. (2023). What is meant by ‘community’in different theoretical traditions? An analysis of influential educational research. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 1–15. DOI:

Popkewitz, T. S. (2008). Cosmopolitanism and the age of school reform: Science, education, and making society by making the child. Routledge.

Power, C. (1988). The just community approach to moral education. Journal of Moral Education, 17(3), 195–208. DOI:

Rancière, J. (1991). The ignorant schoolmaster: Five lessons in intellectual emancipation. Stanford Univ. Press.

Rancière, J. (1999). Disagreement: Politics and philosophy. U of Minnesota Press.

Rose, N. (2000). Community, citizenship, and the third way. American Behavioral Scientist, 43(9), 1395–1411. DOI:

Roth, W.-M. (1995). Inventors, copycats, and everyone else: The emergence of shared resources and practices as defining aspects of classroom communities. Science Education, 79(5), 475–502. DOI:

Roth, W.-M., & Lee, Y.-J. (2006). Contradictions in theorizing and implementing communities in education. Educational Research Review, 1(1), 27–40. DOI:

Savage, G. C. (2011). When worlds collide: Excellent and equitable learning communities? Australia’s ‘social capitalist’paradox? Journal of Education Policy, 26(1), 33–59. DOI:

Sergiovanni, T. J. (1994a). Building community in schools. Jossey-Bass San Fransisco, CA.

Sergiovanni, T. J. (1994b). Organizations or communities? Changing the metaphor changes the theory. Educational Administration Quarterly, 30(2), 214–226. DOI:

Sjöberg, L. (2014). The construction of the ideal pupil – teacher training as a discursive and governing practice. Education Inquiry, 5(4), 23136. DOI:

Slee, R. (2019). Belonging in an age of exclusion. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 23(9), 909–922. DOI:

Strike, K. A. (1993). Professionalism, democracy, and discursive communities: Normative reflections on restructuring. American Educational Research Journal, 30(2), 255–275. DOI:

Strike, K. A. (1999). Can schools be communities? The tension between shared values and inclusion. Educational Administration Quarterly, 35(1), 46–70. DOI:

Strike, K. A. (2000). Schools as communities: Four metaphors, three models, and a dilemma or two. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 34(4), 617–642. DOI:

Strike, K. A. (2004). Community, the missing element of school reform: Why schools should be more like congregations than banks. American Journal of Education, 110(3), 215–232. DOI:

Thomas, G., & Macnab, N. (2019). Intersectionality, diversity, community and inclusion: Untangling the knots. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 0(0), 1–18. DOI:

Tomlinson, C. A., Callahan, C. M., Tomchin, E. M., Eiss, N., Imbeau, M., & Landrum, M. (1997). Becoming architects of communities of learning: Addressing academic diversity in contemporary classrooms. Exceptional Children, 63(2), 269–282. DOI:

Walkerdine, V. (1993). Beyond developmentalism? Theory & Psychology, 3(4), 451–469. DOI:

Walkerdine, V. (1998). Developmental psychology and the child-centred pedagogy: The insertion of Piaget into early education. In J. Henriques (Ed.), Changing the subject: Psychology, social regulation, and subjectivity (pp. 166–216). Routledge.

Watkins, M. (2007). Thwarting desire: Discursive constraint and pedagogic practice. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 20(3), 301–318. DOI:

Willig, C. (2013). Introducing qualitative research in psychology [Electronic resource]. McGraw-Hill Education.

Wood, B. E. (2014). Participatory capital: Bourdieu and citizenship education in diverse school communities. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 35(4), 578–597. DOI:

Youdell, D. (2006). Impossible bodies, impossible selves: Exclusions and student subjectivities (Vol. 3). Springer Science & Business Media.

Yowell, C. M., & Smylie, M. A. (1999). Self-regulation in democratic communities. The Elementary School Journal, 99(5), 469–490. DOI: