The social dynamics of school bullying

The necessary dialogue between the blind men around the elephant and the possible meeting point at the socialecological square


  • Robert Thornberg Department of Behavioural Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden



Bullying has over the years been examined and explained in individual as well as in contextual terms, and from a wide range of different theories and methods. A growing number of bullying researchers approach bullying as a socially complex phenomenon and from social psychological and sociological perspectives. There is today a tension between theoretical perspectives on bullying, but also a need for investigating the social and contextual aspects of bullying further. In this article, I will argue for the necessity of dialogue between different theoretical perspectives and the inclusive potential of the social-ecological framework to create a meeting point of theories in order to develop a more comprehensive understanding of school bullying.


Adler, Patricia A., and Adler, Peter. Peer Power: PreadolescentCulture and Identity. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1998.

Annerbäck, Eva-Maria, Sahlqvist, Lotta, and Wingren, Gun. “A cross-sectional study of victimisation of bullying among schoolchildren in Sweden: Background actors and selfreported health complaints.” Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 42:3 (2014). 270–277. doi: 10.1177/1403494813514142

Asher, Steven R., and McDonald, Kristina L. “The behavioral basis of acceptance, rejection, and perceived popularity.”Handbook of Peer Interactions, Relationships, and Groups. Eds. Kenneth H. Rubin, William M. Bukowski, and Brett Laursen. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 2009. 232–248.

Aspenlieder, Laura, Buchanan, Carie M., McDougall, Patricia, and Sippola, Lorrie K. “Gender nonconformity and peer victimization in pre- and early adolescence.” European Journal of Developmental Science 3.1 (2009): 3–16.

Atkinson, Paul, and Housley, William. Interactionism. London: Sage Publications, 2003. Barboza, Gia E., Schiamberg, Lawrence B., Oehmke, James, Korzeniewski, Steven J., Post, Lori A., and Heraux, Cedrick G. “Individual characteristics and the multiple contexts of adolescent bullying: An ecological perspective.” Journal of Youth and Adolescence 38.1 (2009): 101–121.

Bejerot, Susanne, and Humble, Mats B. “Childhood clumsiness and peer victimization: A case-control study of psychiatric patients.” BMC Psychiatry 13 (2013): Article No. 68. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-13-68

Bejerot, Susanne, Plenty, Stephanie, Humble, Alice, and Humble, Mats B. “Poor motor skills: A risk marker for bully victimization.” Aggressive Behavior 39.6 (2013): 453–461. doi: 10.1002/ab.21489

Berlan, Elise D., Corliss, Heather L., Field, Alison E., Goodman, Elizabeth, and Austin, S. Bryn. “Sexual orientation and bullying among adolescents in the growing up today study.” Journal of Adolescent Health, 46.4 (2010). 366–371. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.10.015

Besag, Valerie. Understanding Girls’ Friendship, Fights and Feuds: A Practical Approach to Girls’ Bullying. New York: Open University Press, 2006.

Birkett, Michelle, and Espelage, Dorothy L. “Homophobic name-calling, peer-groups, and masculinity: The socialization of homophobic behavior in adolescents.” Social Development 24.1 (2015): 184–205. doi: 10.1111/sode.12085

Birkett, Michelle, Espelage, Dorothy L., and Koenig, Brian.“LGB and questioning students in schools: The moderating effects of homophobic bullying and school climate on negative outcomes.” Journal of Youth and Adolescence 38.7 (2009): 989–1000. doi: 10.1007/s10964-008-9389-1

Blake, Jamilia J., Lund, Emily M., Zhou, Qiong, Kwok, Oi-man, and Benz, Michael R. “National prevalence rates of bully victimization among students with disabilities in the United States.” School Psychology Quarterly 27.4 (2012): 210–222. doi: 10.1037/spq0000008

Boulton, Michael J. “Concurrent and longitudinal relations between children’s playground behavior and social preference, victimization, and bullying.” ChildDevelopment, 70.4 (1999): 944–954. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00068

Bronfenbrenner, Urie. The Ecology of Human Developments: Experiment by Nature and Design. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979.

Cadigan, Rosemary J. Scrubs: An Ethnographic Study of Peer Culture and Harassment among Sixth Graders in an Urban Middle School. Los Angeles: University of California, 2002.

Campbell, Wenonah N., Missiuna, Cheryl, and Vaillancourt, Tracy. “Peer victimization and depression in children with and without motor coordination difficulties.” Psychology in Schools 49.4 (2012): 328–341. doi: 10.1002/pits.21600

Canty, Justin, Stubbe, Maria, Steers, Denise, and Collings, Sunny. “The trouble with bullying – Deconstructing the conventional definition of bullying for a child-centred investigation into children’s use of social media.” Children & Society (in press). doi: 10.1111/chso.12103

Caravita, Simona C. S., Blasio, Paola D., and Salmivalli, Christina. “Unique and interactive effects of empathy and social status on involvement in bullying.” SocialDevelopment 18.1 (2009): 140–163. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2008.00465.x

Caravita, Simona C. S., Blasio, Paola D., and Salmivalli, Christina. “Early adolescents’ participation in bullying: Is ToM involved?” Journal of Early Adolescence 30.1 (2010): 138–170. doi: 10.1177/0272431609342983

Caravita, Simona C. S., and Cillessen, Antonius H. N. “Agentic or communal? Associations between interpersonal goals, popularity, and being in middle childhood and early adolescence.” Social Development 21.2 (2012): 376–395. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2011.00632.x

Carrera, Maria V., DePalma, Renée, and Lameiras, Maria. “Toward a more comprehensive understanding of bullying in school settings.” Educational Psychology Review 23.4 (2011): 479–499. doi: 10.1007/s10648-011-9171-x

Christensen, Lisa L., Fraynt, Rebecca J., Neece, Cameron L., and Baker, Bruce L. “Bullying adolescents with intellectual disability.” Journal of Mental HealthResearch in Intellectual Disabilities 5.1 (2012): 49–65. doi: 10.1080/19315864.2011.637660

Cillessen, Antonius H. N., and Mayeux, Lara. “Sociometric status and peer group behavior: Previous findings and current directions.” Children’s Peer Relations. Eds. Janis B. Kupersmidt, and Kenneth A. Dodge Washington DC: American Psychological Association, 2004. 3–20. doi: 10.1037/10653-001

Coolidge, Frederick L., DenBoer, John W., and Segal, Daniel L.“Personality and neuropsychological correlates of bullying behavior.” Personality and Individual Differences 36.7 (2003): 1559–1569. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2003.06.005

D’Augelli, Anthony R., Grossman, Arnold H., and Starks, Michael T. “Childhood gender atypicality, victimization, and PTSD among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 21.11 (2006): 1462–1482. doi: 10.1177/0886260506293482

Davies, Bronwyn. “Bullies as guardians of the moral order: Rethinking the origins of bullying in schools.” Children and Society 25.4 (2011): 278–286. doi: 10.1111/j.1099-0860.2011.00380.x

Davis, Stephen, Howell, Peter, and Cooke, Frances.“Sociodynamic relationships between children who stutter and the non-stuttering classmates.” Journal of

Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 43.7 (2002): 939–947. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00093

de Bruyn, Eddy H., Cillessen, Antonius H. N., and Wissink, Inge B. “Associations of peer acceptance and perceived popularity with bullying and victimization in early adolescence.” Journal of Early Adolescence 30.4 (2010): 543–566. doi: 10.1177/0272431609340517

Dijkstra, Jan K., Lindenberg, Siegwart, and Veenstra, René.“Beyond the class norm: Bullying behavior of popular adolescents and its relation to peer acceptance and rejection.” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 36.8 (2008): 1289–1299. doi: 10.1007/s10802-008-9251-7

Dixon, Roz, Smith, Peter, and Jenks, Chris. “Bullying and difference: A case study of peer group dynamics in one school.” Journal of School Violence 3.4 (2004): 41–58. doi: 10.1300/J202v03n04_04

Duncan, Neil. Sexual Bullying: Gender Conflict and Pupil Culture in Secondary Schools. London: Routledge, 1999.

Duncan, Neil. “Using disability models to rethink bullying in schools.” Education, Citizenship and Social Justice 8.3 (2013): 254–262. doi: 10.1177/1746197913486250

Duncan, Neil, and Owens, Larry. “Bullying, social power and heteronormativity: Girls’ constructions of popularity.”Children & Society 25.4 (2011): 306–316. doi: 10.1111/j.1099-0860.2011.00378.x

Eder, Donna, Evans, Catherine C., and Parker, Stephen. School Talk: Gender and Adolescent Culture. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1995.

Ellwood, Constance, and Davies, Bronwyn. “Violence and the moral order in contemporary schooling: A discursive analysis.” Qualitative Research in Psychology 7.2 (2010): 85–98. doi: 10.1080/14780880802477598

Ellwood, Constance, and Davies, Bronwyn. “Violence and moral order in contemporary schooling: A discursive analysis.” School Bullying: New Theories in Context. Eds. Robin M. Schott and Dorte M. Søndergaard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. 81–95. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139226707.006

Erickson, Shane, and Block, Susan. “The social and communication impact of stuttering on adolescents and their families.” Journal of Fluency Disorders 38.3 (2013): 311–324. doi: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2013.09.003

Espelage, Dorothy L. “Ecological theory: Preventing youth bullying, aggression, and victimization.” Theory Into Practice 53.4 (2014): 257–264. doi: 10.1080/00405841.2014.947216

Espelage, Dorothy L., and Rue, Lisa D. L. “School bullying: Its nature and ecology.” International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health 24.1 (2012): 3–10. doi: 10.1515/ijamh.2012.002

Espelage, Dorothy L., and Swearer, Susan M., eds. Bullying in American Schools: A Social-Ecological Perspective on Prevention and Intervention. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2004.

Espelage, Dorothy L., and Swearer, Susan M., eds. Bullying in North American Schools (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge, 2011.

Evaldsson Ann-Carita, and Svahn Johanna. “School bullying and the micro-politics of girls’ gossip disputes.” Disputes in Everyday Life. Eds. Susan Danby and Maryanne Theobald. Bingley: Emerald, 2012. 297–323.

Evans, Cathy, and Eder, Donna. “‘No exit’: Processes of social isolation in the middle school.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 22.2 (1993): 139–170. doi: 10.1177/089124193022002001

Fite, Paula J., Evans, Spencer C., Cooley, John L., and Rubens, Sonia L. “Further evaluation of association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms and bullying-victimization in adolescence.” Child Psychiatry and Human Development 45.1 (2014): 32–41. doi: 10.1007/s10578-013-0376-8

Friedman, Mark S., Koeske, Gary F., Silvestre, Anthony J., Korr, Wynne S., and Sites, Edward W. “The impact of genderrole non-conforming behavior, bullying, and social support on suicidality among gay male youth.” Journal of Adolescent Health 38.5 (2006): 621–623. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.04.014

Frånberg, Gun-Marie, and Wrethander, Marie. Mobbning – En Social Konstruktion? Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011.

Goodwin, Marjorie H. “Exclusion in girls’ peer groups: Ethnographic analysis of language practices on the playground.” Human Development 45.6 (2002): 392– 415. doi: 10.1159/000066260

Gumpel, Thomas P., Zioni-Koren, Vered, and Bekerman, Zvi. “An ethnographic study of participant roles in school bullying.” Aggressive Behavior 40.3 (2014): 214–228. doi: 10.1002/ab.21515

Haavind, Hanne. “‘Who does he think he is?’: Making new friends and leaving others behind – on the path from childhood to youth.” School Bullying: New Theories in Context. Eds. Robin M. Schott and Dorte M. Søndergaard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014, 129–184.

Hamarus, Päivi, and Kaikkonen, Pauli. “School bullying as a creator of pupil pressure.” Educational Research 50.4 (2008): 333–345. doi: 10.1080/00131880802499779

Holmberg, Kirsten, and Hjern, Anders. “Bullying and attentiondeficit-hyperactivity disorder in 10-years-olds in a Swedish community.” Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 50.2 (2008): 134–138. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.02019.x

Hong, Jun S., Espelage, Dorothy L., and Kral, Michael J. “Understanding suicide among sexual minority youth in America: An ecological systems analysis.” Journal of Adolescence 34.5 (2011): 885–894. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.01.002

Hong, Jun S., and Garbarino, James. (2012). “Risk and protective factors for homophobic bullying in schools: An application of the social-ecological framework.” Educational Psychology Review 24.2 (2012): 271–285. doi: 10.1007/s10648-012-9194-y

Horton, Paul. School Bullying and Power Relations in Vietnam (Linköping Studies in Arts and Science No. 541). Linköping: Linköping University, 2011.

Hymel, Shelley, Closson, Leanna M., Caravita, Simona C. S., and Vaillancourt, Tracy. “Social status among peers: From sociometric attraction to peer acceptance to perceived popularity.” The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Social Development (2 nd ed.). Eds. Peter K. Smith and Craig H. Hart. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011. 375–392.

Jackson, Stevi. “Gender, sexuality and heterosexuality: The complexity (and limits) of heteronormativity.” Feminist Theory 7.1 (2006): 105–121. doi: 10.1177/1464700106061462

Jimerson, Shane R., Swearer, Susan M., and Espelage, Dorothy L., eds. Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective. New York, NY: Routledge, 2010.

Kinney, David A. “From nerds to normals: The recovery of identity among adolescents from middle to high school.” Sociology of Education 66.1 (1993): 21–40. doi: 10.2307/2112783

Kless, Steven J. “The attainment of peer status: Gender and power relationships in the elementary school.” Sociological Studies of Child Development 5 (1992): 115–148.

Kloosterman, Patricia H., Kelley, Elizabeth A., Craig, Wendy M., Parker, James D. A., and Javier, Christine. “Types and experiences of bullying in adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder.” Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 7.7 (2013): 824–832. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2013.02.013

Kousholt, Kristine, and Fisker, Tine B. “Approaches to reduce bullying in schools – A critical analysis from the viewpoint of first- and second-order perspectives on bullying.” Children & Society (in press). doi: 10.1111/chso.12094

Kuhn, Manford. “Major trends in symbolic interaction theory over the past twenty-five years.” Sociological Quarterly 5.1 (1964): 61–84. doi: 10.1111/j.1533-8525.1964.tb02256.x

Lahelma, Elina. “Tolerance and understanding? Students and teachers reflect on differences at school.” Educational Research and Evaluation 10.1 (2004): 3–19. doi: 10.1076/edre.

Lee, Elizabeth A. E., and Troop-Gordon, Wendy. “Peer processes and gender role development: Changes in gender atypicality related to negative peer treatment and children’s friendship.” Sex Roles 64.1–2 (2011): 90–102.

Loutzenheiser, Lisa W. “‘Who are you calling a problem?’: Addressing transphobia and homophobia through school policy.” Critical Studies in Education 56.1 (2015), 99–115. doi: 10.1080/17508487.2015.990473

Luciano, Severina, and Savage, Robert S. “Bullying risk on children with learning difficulties in inclusive educational settings.” Canadian Journal of School Psychology 22.1 (2007): 14–31. doi: 10.1177/0829573507301039

MacDondald, Helen, and Swart, Estelle. “The culture of bullying at a primary school.” Education As Change 8.2 (2004): 33–55. doi: 10.1080/16823200409487090

McGee, Marjorie G. “Lost in the margins? Intersections between disability and other nondominant statuses with regard to peer victimization.” Journal of School Violence 13.4 (2013): 396–421. doi: 10.1080/15388220.2014.894914

McNamara, John K., Willoughby, Teena, Chalmers, Heather, and YLC-CURA. “Psychosocial status of adolescents with disabilities with and without comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.” Learning Disabilities Research & Practice 20.4 (2005): 234–244. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5826.2005.00139.x

Merten, Don E. “The cultural context of aggression: The transition to junior high school.” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 25.1 (1994): 29–43. doi: 10.1525/aeq.1994.25.1.05x0962z

Merton, Don E. “Visibility and vulnerability: Responses to rejection by nonaggressive junior high school boys.” Journal of Early Adolescence 16.1 (1996): 5–26. doi: 10.1177/0272431696016001001

Merton, Don E. “The meaning of meanness: Popularity, competition, and conflict among junior high school girls.”Sociology of Education 70.3 (1997): 175–191. doi: 10.2307/2673207

Meyer, Elizabeth J. “A feminist reframing of bullying and harassment: Transforming schools through critical pedagogy.” McGill Journal of Education 43.1 (2008): 33–48. doi: 10.7202/019572ar

Migliaccio, Todd. “Teacher engagement with bullying: Managing an identity within a school.” Sociological Spectrum 35.1 (2015) 84–108. doi: 10.1080/02732173.2014.978430

Migliaccio, Todd, and Raskauskas, Juliana. Bullying as a Social Experience: Social Factors, Prevention and Intervention. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, in press.

Mitchell, Donna M., and Borg, Tracey. “Examining the lived experience of bullying: A review of the literature from an Australian perspective.” Pastoral Care in Education 31.2 (2003): 142–155. doi: 10.1080/02643944.2012.747554

Nabuzoka, Dabie. “Teacher ratings and peer nominations of bullying and other behaviour of children with and without learning difficulties.” Educational Psychology 23.3 (2003): 307–321. doi: 10.1080/0144341032000060147

Norwich, Brahm, and Kelly, Narcie. “Pupils’ views on inclusion: Moderate learning difficulties and bullying in mainstream and special schools.” British Educational Research Journal 30.1 (2004): 43–65. doi: 10.1080/01411920310001629965

Olweus, Dan. Hackkycklingar och Översittare: Forskning om Skolmobbning. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1973.

Olweus, Dan. Aggression in the Schools: Bullies and Whipping Boys. New York, NY: Halstead Press, 1978.

Owens, Laurence, Shute, Rosalyn, and Slee, Phillip. “‘Guess what I just heard’: Indirect aggression among teenage girls in Australia.” Aggressive Behavior 26.1 (2000): 67–83. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(2000)26:1<67::AID-AB6>3.0.CO;2-C

Pellegrini, Anthony D. “Bullying, victimization, and sexual harassment during the transition to middle school.” Educational Psychologist 37.3 (2002): 151–163. doi: 10.1207/S15326985EP3703_2

Pellegrini, Anthony D. “Bullying during the middle school years.” Bullying: Implications for the Classroom. Eds. Cheryl E. Sanders and Gary D. Phye. London: Elsevier Academic Press, 2004. 177–202. doi: 10.1016/B978-012617955-2/50014-X

Pellegrini, Anthony D., Bartini, Maria, and Brooks, Fred. “School bullies, victims, and aggressive victims: Factors relating to group affiliation and victimization in early adolescence.” Journal of Educational Psychology 91.2 (1999): 216–224. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.91.2.216

Pellegrini, Anthony D., and Long, Jeffrey D. A longitudinal study of bullying, dominance, and victimization during the transition from primary through secondary school. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 20.2 (2002): 259–280. doi: 10.1348/026151002166442

Pellegrini, Anthony D., Kato, Kentaro, Blatchford, Peter, and Baines, Ed. “A short-term longitudinal study of children’s playground games across the first year of school: Implications for social competence and adjustment to school.” American Educational Research Journal 39.4 (2002): 991–1015. doi: 10.3102/00028312039004991

Pellegrini, Anthony D., Long, Jeffrey D., Solberg, David, Roseth, Cary, Dupuis, Danielle, Bohn, Catherine, and Hickey, Meghan. “Bullying and social status during school transitions.” Handbook of Bullying in Schools: An International Perspective. Eds. Shane R. Jimerson, Susan M. Swearer, and Dorothy L. Espelage. New York: Routledge, 2010. 199–210.

Phelan, Jo C., and Link, Bruce G. “The labelling theory of mental disorder (1): The role of social contingencies in the application of psychiatric labels.” A handbook for the study of mental health: Social contexts, theories, and systems. Eds. Allan V. Horwitz, and Teresa L. Scheid. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. 139–149.

Phoenix, Ann, Frosh, Stephen, and Pattman, Rob. “Producing contradictory masculine subject positions: Narratives of threat, homophobia and bullying in 11-14 years old boys.” Journal of Social Issues 59.1 (2003): 179–195. doi: 10.1111/1540-4560.t01-1-00011

Phillips, Coretta. “Who’s who in the pecking order?” British Journal of Criminology 43.4 (2003): 710–728. doi: 10.1093/bjc/43.4.710

Poteat, Paul, Mereish, Ethan H., Digiovanni, Craig D., and Scheer, Jillian R. “Homophobic bullying.” Bullying: Experiences and Discourses of Sexuality and Gender. Eds. Ian Rivers, and Neil Duncan. New York, NY: Routledge, 2013. 75–90.

Poteat, Paul, and Rivers, Ian. “The use of homophobic language across bullying roles during adolescence.” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 31.2 (2010): 166–172. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2009.11.005

Pöyhönen, Virpi, Juvonen, Jaana, and Salmivalli, Christina. “Standing up for the victim, siding with the bully or standing by? Bystander responses in bullying situations.” Social Development 21.4 (2012): 722–741. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2012.00662.x

Prinstein, Mitchell J., and Cillessen, Antonius H. “Forms and functions of adolescent peer aggression associated with high levels of peer status.” Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 49.3 (2003): 310–342. doi: 10.1353/mpq.2003.0015

Pritchard, Eric D. “For colored kids who committed suicide, our outrage isn’t enough: Queer youth of color, bullying, and the discursive limits of identity and safety.” Harvard Educational Review 83.2 (2013): 320–345. doi: 10.17763/haer.83.2.7n07k41t2kn26708

Reijntjes, Albert, Vermande, Marjolijn, Olthof, Tjeert, Goossens, Frits A., Van De Schoot, Rens, Aleva, Liesbeth, and Van Der Meulen, Matty. ”Costs and benefits of bullying in the context of the peer group: A three wave longitudinal analysis.” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 41.8 (2013): 1217–1229. doi: 10.1007/s10802-013-9759-3

Renold, Emma. “‘They won’t let us play … unless you’re going out with one of them’: Girls, boys and Butler’s‘heterosexual matrix’ in the primary years.” BritishJournal of Sociology of Education 27.4 (2006): 489–509. doi: 10.1080/01425690600803111

Ringrose, Jessica. “‘Just be friends’: Exposing the limits of educational bully discourses for understanding teen girls’ heterosexualized friendships and conflicts.” BritishJournal of Sociology of Education 29.5 (2008): 509–522. doi: 10.1080/01425690802263668

Ringrose, Jessica, and Renold, Emma. “Normative cruelties and gender deviants: The performative effects of bully discourses for girls and boys in school.” BritishEducational Research Journal 36.4 (2010): 573–596. doi: 10.1080/01411920903018117

Rivers, Ian, and Cowie, Helen. “Bullying and homophobia in UK schools: A perspective on factors affecting resilience and recovery.” Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education 3.4 (2006): 11–43. doi: 10.1300/J367v03n04_03

Robinson, Joseph P., and Espelage, Dorothy L. “Bullying explains only part of LGBTQ–heterosexual risk disparities: Implications for policy and practice. ”Educational Researcher 41.8 (2012): 309–319. doi: 10.3102/0013189X12457023

Rose, Chad A. “Bullying among students with disabilities.” Bullying in North American Schools (2nd ed.). Eds. Dorothy L. Espelage, and Susan M. Swearer. New York, NY: Routledge, 2011. 34–44.

Rose, Chad A., Monda-Amaya, Lisa E., and Espelage, Dorothy L. “Bullying perpetration and victimization in special education: A review of the literature.” Remedial and Special Education 32.2 (2011): 114–130. doi: 10.1177/0741932510361247

Schott, Robin M. (2014). “The social concept of bullying: Philosophical reflections on definitions.” School Bullying: New Theories in Context. Eds. Robin M. Schott, and Dorte M. Søndergaard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. 21–46. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139226707

Schott, Robin M., and Søndergaard, Dorte M. “Introduction: New approaches to school bullying.” School Bullying: New Theories in Context. Eds. Robin M. Schott, and Dorte M. Søndergaard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014a. 1–17. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139226707

Schott, Robin M., and Søndergaard, Dorte M., eds. School Bullying: New Theories in Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014b. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139226707

Schroeder, Jessica H., Cappadocia, M. Catherine, Bebko, James M., Pepler, Debra J., and Weiss, Jonathan A. “Shedding light on a pervasive problem: A review of research on bullying experiences among children with autism spectrum disorders.” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 44.7 (2014): 1520–1534. doi: 10.1007/s10803-013-2011-8

Sentenac, Mariane, Arnaud, Catherine, Gavin, Aoife, Molcho, Michal, Gabhainn, Saoirse N., and Godeau, Emmanuelle. “Peer victimization among school-aged children with chronic conditions.” Epidemiologic Reviews 34.1 (2012): 120–128. doi: 10.1093/epirev/mxr024

Sentse, Miranda, Kiuru, Noona, Veenstra, René, and Salmivalli, Christina. “A social network approach to the interplay between adolescents’ bullying and likeability over time.” Journal of Youth and Adolescence 43.9 (2014): 1409–1420. doi: 10.1007/s10964-014-0129-4

Smith, Peter K. Understanding School Bullying: Its Nature & Prevention Strategies. London: Sage, 2014.

Sreckovic, Melissa A., Brunsting, Nelson C., and Able, Harriet.“Victimization of students with autism spectrum disorder: A review of prevalence and risk factors.” Research in Autism Spectrum Disorder 8.9 (2014): 1155–1172. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2014.06.004

Stoudt, Brett G. “You’re either in or you’re out”: School violence, peer discipline, and the (re)production of hegemonic masculinity. Men and Masculinities 8.3 (2006): 273–287. doi: 10.1177/1097184X05282070

Svahn, Johanna, and Evaldsson, Ann-Carita. “‘You could just ignore me’: Situating peer exclusion within the contingencies of girls’ everyday interactional practices.” Childhood 18.4 (2011): 491–508. doi: 10.1177/0907568211402859

Swart, Estelle, and Bredekamp, Judith. “Non-physical bullying: Exploring the perspectives of Grade 5 girls.” South African Journal of Education 29.3 (2009): 405–425.

Swearer, Susan M., Wang, Cixin, Maag, John W., Siebecker, Amanda B., and Frerichs, Lynae J. “Understanding the bullying dynamic among student in special and general education.” Journal of School Psychology 50.4 (2012): 503–520. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2012.04.001

Søndergaard, Dorte M. “Bullying and social exclusion anxiety in schools.” British Journal of Sociology of Education 33.3 (2012): 355–372. doi: 10.1080/01425692.2012.662824

Søndergaard, Dorte M. “Social exclusion anxiety: Bullying and the forces that contribute to bullying amongst children at school.” School Bullying: New Theories in Context. Eds. Robin M. Schott, and Dorte M. Søndergaard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. 47–80. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139226707.005

Taylor, Lloyd A., Saylor, Conway, Twyman, Kimberly, and Macias, Michelle. “Adding insult to injury: Bullying experiences of youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.” Children’s Health Care 39.1 (2010): 59–72. doi: 10.1080/02739610903455152

Teräsahjo, Timo, and Salmivalli, Christina. “‘She is not actually bullied’: The discourse of harassment in student groups.”Aggressive Behavior 29.2 (2003): 134–154. doi: 10.1002/ab.10045

Thayer-Bacon, Barbera. “Fallibilism entails pluralism.” Paper presented at American Education Studies Association Annual Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, November 1-5, 2000.

Thayer-Bacon, Barbera. “An examination and redescription of epistemology.” Standards and Schooling in the United States: An encyclopedia. Eds. J. L. Kincheloe, and D. K. Well. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2001. 397–418.

Thayer-Bacon, Barbera. “Pragmatism and feminism as qualified relativism.” Studies in Philosophy and Education 22.6 (2003a): 417–438. doi: 10.1023/A:1025735417682

Thayer-Bacon, Barbera. Relational “(e)pistemologies”. New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2003b

Thornberg, Robert. “‘She’s weird!’ – The social construction of bullying in school: A review of qualitative research.” Children & Society 25.5 (2011): 258–267. doi: 10.1111/j.1099-0860.2011.00374.x

Thornberg, Robert. “School bullying and fitting into the peer landscape.” Linköping Linköping: University, 2014. (Unpublished paper).

Thornberg, Robert. “School bullying as a collective action: Stigma processes and identity struggling.” Children & Society 29.4 (2015): 310–320. doi: 10.1111/chso.12058

Thornberg, Robert, Halldin, Karolina, Bolmsjö, Natalie, and Petersson, Annelie. “Victimising of school bullying: A grounded theory.” Research Papers in Education 28.3 (2013): 309–329. doi: 10.1080/02671522.2011.641999

Thunfors, Peter, and Cornell, Dewey. “The popularity of middle school bullies.” Journal of School Violence 7.1 (2008): 65–82. doi: 10.1300/J202v07n01_05

Toomey, Russell B., McGuire, Jenifer K., and Rusell, Stephen T.“Heteronormativity, school climates, and perceived safety for gender nonconforming peers.” Journal of Adolescence 35.1 (2012): 187–196. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.03.001

Twyman, Kimberly A., Saylor, Conway F., Saia, Danielle, Maclas, Michelle M., Taylor, Lloyd A., and Spratt, Eve.“Bullying and ostracism experiences in children with special health care needs.” Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 31.1 (2010): 1–8. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181c828c8

Unnever, James D., and Cornell, Dewey G. “Bullying, selfcontrol, and ADHD.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 18.2 (2003): 129–147. doi: 10.1177/0886260502238731

Varjas, Krist, Dew, Brian, Marshall, Megan, Graybill, Emily, Singh, Anneliese, Meyers, Joel, and Birckbichler, Lamar.“Bullying in schools towards sexual minority youth.” Journal of School Violence 7.2 (2008): 59–86. doi: 10.1300/J202v07n02_05

Volk, Anthony A., Dane, Andrew V., and Marini, Zopito A.“What is bullying? A theoretical redefinition.”Developmental Review 34.4 (2014): 327–353. doi: 10.1016/j.dr.2014.09.001

Wiener, J., and Mak, M. (2009). “Peer victimization in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.” Psychology in the Schools 46, 116–131. doi: 10.1002/pits.20358

Witvliet, Miranda, Olthof, Tjeert, Hoeksma, Jan B., Goossens, Frits A., Smits, Marieke S. I. and Koot, Hans M. “Peer group affiliation of children: The role of perceived popularity, likeability, and behavioral similarity in bullying.” Social Development 19.2 (2010): 285–303. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2009.00544.x

Wrethander, Marie. Inneslutning och Uteslutning: BarnsRelationsarbete i Skolan. Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2007. Yoneyama, Shoko, and Naito, Asao. “Problems with the paradigm: The school as a factor in understanding bullying (with special reference to Japan).” British Journal of Sociology of Education 24.3 (2003): 315–330.

Young, Robert, and Sweeting, Helen. “Adolescent bullying, relationships, psychological well-being, and genderatypical behavior: A gender diagnosticity approach.” SexRoles 50.7–8 (2004): 525–537.

Zablotsky, Benjamin, Bradshaw, Catherine P., Anderson, Coonie M., and Law, Paul. “Risk factors for bullying among children with autism spectrum disorders.” Autism 18.4 (2014): 419–427. doi: 10.1177/1362361313477920

Zinner, Samuel H., Conelea, Christine A., Glew, Gwen M., Woods, Dauglas W., and Budman, Cathy L. “Peer victimization in youth with Tourette syndrome and other chronic tic disorders.” Child Psychiatry and Human Development 43.1 (2012): 124–136. doi: 10.1007/s10578-011-0249-y